Brain

The brain is the central command system of your body.  It receives and processes information from all of your senses (sight, sound, touch etc).  The brain sends out commands to all of your muscles allowing you to move and speak.  It provides all of our ability to think independently and also provides central control of all of the hormones in the body.

Aneurysm

A brain aneurysm is an abnormal outpouching of an artery within the brain. Aneurysms form as a result of weakened areas within the walls of arteries in the brain. Aneurysms can be a source of headaches. More importantly, these weakened vessels can rupture without warning, which can cause fatal strokes.

Arteriovenous Fistula (AVF)

An arteriovenous fistula, or AVF, is an abnormal connection between arteries and veins in the brain. Normally, arteries and veins are connected by a complex system of smaller vessels called capillaries. When arteries and veins become connected without normal capillaries, hemorrhage (bleeding) and elevated intracranial pressure can occur, which can lead to strokes, headaches, and tinnitus (ringing in the ears).

Ateriovenous Malformation (AVM)

An arteriovenous malformation, or AVM, is an abnormal connection between arteries and veins in the brain.  Normally, arteries and veins are connected by a complex system of smaller vessels called capillaries.  When arteries and veins are connected without normal capillaries, life-threatening bleeding (intracranial hemorrhage) or a stroke can occur.

Cerebrospinal fluid leak (CSF)

Cerebrospinal fluid, or CSF, refers to the clear fluid that lines and protects the brain and spinal cord. This fluid serves many purposes, including cushioning the brain and spinal cord, providing nutrients, and removing toxins. Any tear of the dura, the tissue which lines the brain and spinal cord, can cause a leak of CSF. This can occur following procedures such as lumbar punctures and spinal anesthesia, trauma, surgery, or can occur spontaneously, especially in the setting of connective tissue diseases such as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. CSF leaks cause a decrease in intracranial pressure, which can result in unrelenting, debilitating headaches.

Stroke

A stroke is any process that reduces blood flow to part of your brain enough that the brain tissue begins to die.  Most strokes are caused by blockage of the blood flow leading to the brain.  This is called an ischemic stroke.  Less frequently one of these vessels may rupture leading to both bleeding and stroke.  This is called a hemorrhagic stroke.

Tumor

A brain tumor refers to any abnormal growth of cells in the brain. There are over 150 types of brain tumors, and the brain is a common site of metastasis (spread) of cancers from other parts of the body. Both primary brain tumors and metastases can result in bleeding in the brain and abnormal compression of normal brain structures due to the space these growths occupy.